Apostolava, I. & Slavova, L.: Compendium of Bulgarian Plant Communities. Pensoft Publishers.

Bulgaria: Natural Heritage. Pensoft Publishers. – natural history, biodiversity, protected areas, fauna and flora

Christensen, K. I.: Revision of Crataegus Sect. Crataegus and Nothosect. Crataeguineae (Rosaceae-Maloideae) in the Old World. The American Society of Plant Taxonomists. – for the identification of Europe’s difficult hawthorns

Chytrý, M. et al. (eds.): Flora and Vegetation of the Czech Republic. Springer.

Faliński. J. B.: Vegetation dynamics in temperate lowland primeval forests. Dr W. Junk Publishers. – classic book on the Białowieża forest

Finnish Landscapes – Lapland and the North-East. Docendo. – photobook

Hanneberg, P. & Löfgren, R.: Sweden’s National Parks. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Leuschner, C. & Ellenberg, H.: Ecology of Central European Forests. Cambridge University Press.

Loidi, J.: The Vegetation of the Iberian Peninsula. Springer.

Polunin, O. & Walters, M.: A guide to the vegetation of Britain and Europe. Oxford University Press.

Popov, E. B. et al. (2005): Virgin Forests of Bulgaria. Royal Dutch Society for Nature Conservation Bulgarian Forest Research Institute.

Rushforth, K.: Trees of Britain & Europe. HarperCollinsPublishers. – identification guide

Rydin, H., Snoeijs, P. & Diekmann, M.: Swedish plant geography. Acta phytogeographica suecica 84.

Schmid, M.: Swiss Wilderness. Benteli Verlag. – photobook

Sudek, J. & Janda, R.: Prales Virgin Forest Mionší. Kant Publications. – photobook on Mionší Virgin Forest, Czechia

Trees and Forests – Wild Wonders of Europe. Abrams. – photobook

Voloscuk (ed.): The National Parks and Biosphere Reserves in Carpathians. – Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania

Vrška, T. et al.: Developmental Dynamics of Virgin Forest Reserves in the Czech Republic. Pensoft Publishers.

Scientific papers

Alessandrini, A., Biondi, F., Di Filippo, A., Ziaco, E. & Piovesan, G. (2011): Tree size distribution at increasing spatial scales converges to the rotated sigmoid curve in two old-growth beech stands of the Italian Apennines. Forest Ecology and Management 262: 1950–1962. – Valle Cervara, Coppo del Principe (Italy)

Angelstam, P. & Kuuluvainen, T. (2004): Boreal forest disturbance regimes, successional dynamics and landscape structures – a European perspective. Ecological Bulletins 51: 117–136.

Anić, I. & Mikac, S. (2008): Structure, texture and regeneration of dinaric beech–fir virgin forest of Čorkova uvala. Šumarski List 132: 505–515. – Croatia

Ballian, D. & T. Mikić (2002): Changes in the structure of the virgin forest reserve Trstionica. Mitteilungen aus der Forschungsanstalt für Waldökologie und Forstwirtschaft Reinland-Pfalc. 50(03): 238–247. – Bosnia–Herzegovina

Bernadzki, E., Bolibok, L., Brzeziecki, B., Za̧jaczkowski, J., & Zybura, H. (1998): Compositional dynamics of natural forests in the Bialowieza National Park, northeastern Poland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 229–238.

Biris, I. A. & Veen, P. (eds.): Virgin Forests in Romania. ICAS & KNNV.

Blasi, C. et al. (eds.): Old-growth Forests in Italy. Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea Protection.

Bobiec, A. (2000): Rich deciduous forests in Białowieża as a dynamic mosaic of developmental phases: premises for nature conservation and restoration management. Forest Ecology and Management 130, 159–175. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00181-4. – Poland

Bottero, A. et al. (2011): Gap-Phase Dynamics in the Old-Growth Forest of Lom, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Silva Fennica 45(5).

Bradshaw, R. H. W. & Hannon, G. (1992): Climatic change, human influence and disturbance regime in the control of vegetation dynamics within Fiby Forest, Sweden. J. Ecol. 80: 625–632.

Burrascano, S., Rosati, L. & Blasi, C. (2009): Plant species diversity in Mediterranean old-growth forests: A case study from central Italy. Plant Biosystems, Vol. 143, No. 1, pp. 190–200. – Valle Cervara

Calamini, G. et al. (2011): Stand Structure Attributes in Potential Old-Growth Forests in the Apennines, Italy. L’Italia Forestale e Montana 66 (5): 365–381.

Caron, M.-N. (2009): Canopy gap characteristics and disturbance dynamics in old-growth Picea abies stands in northern Fennoscandia: Is the forest in quasi-equilibrium? Ann. Bot. Fennici 46: 251–262. – Pallas (Finland)

Chirici, G. & Nocentini, S. (2010): Old-growth forests in Italy: recent research developments and future perspectives. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 65(5): 475–480.

Christensen, M. et al. (2005): Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves. Forest Ecology and Management 210, 267–282.

Commarmot, B. et al. (2005): Structures of virgin and managed beech forests in Uholka (Ukraine) and Sihlwald (Switzerland): a comparative study. For. Snow Landsc. Res. 79, 1/2: 45–56.

Commarmot, B. et al. (eds.) 2013: Inventory of the Largest Primeval Beech Forest in Europe. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf. – Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh (Ukraine)

Čurović, M., Stešević, D., Medarević, M., Cvjetićanin, R., Pantić, D. and Spalević, V., 2011. Ecological and Structural Characteristics of Monodominant Montane Beech Forests in the National Park Biogradska Gora, Montenegro. Arch. Biol. Sci., 63 (2): 429–440.

Diaci, J., Rozenbergar, D., Boncina, A., 2010. Stand dynamics of Dinaric old-growth forest in Slovenia: are indirect human influences relevant? Plant Biosystems 144, 194–201. – Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia)

Diaci, J. (Ed.) 1998: Virgin Forests and Forest Reserves in Central and East European Countries: History, Present Status and Future DevelopmentProceedings of the Invited Lecturers’ Reports Presented at the COST E4 Management Committee and Working Groups Meeting in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Ljubljana.

Diaci et al. (2008): Long-term changes in tree species composition in old-growth dinaric beech-fir forest. Glas Šum Pokuse 42: 13–28. – Slovenian and Croatian reserves

Drössler, L. & Von Lüpke, B. (2005): Canopy gaps in two virgin beech forest reserves in Slovakia. Journal of Forest Science 51(10): 446–457. – Havešová, Kyjov

Engelmark, 0. (1984): Forest fires in the Muddus National Park (northern Sweden) during the past 600 years. Can. J. Bot. 62: 893–898.

Engelmark, 0. & Edenius, L. (1998): Forest structural changes in Muddus National Park in northern Sweden from 1945 to 1995. SkogForsk Rep. 1998(1): 91.

Engelmark, 0., Hofgaard, A. & Arnborg, T. (1998): Successional trends 219 years after ftre in an old Pinus sylvestris stand in northern Sweden. J. Veg. Sci. 9: 583–592. – Muddus

Firm, D., Nagel, T. A. & Diaci, J. (2009): Disturbance history and dynamics of an old-growth mixed species mountain forest in the Slovenian Alps. Forest Ecology and Management Volume 257, Issue 9, 1893–1901. – Lucka Bela

Hobi, M. L., Commarmot, B., & Bugmann, H. (2015): Pattern and process in the largest primeval beech forest of Europe (Ukrainian Carpathians). Journal of Vegetation Science, 26, 323–336. – Uholka – Shyrokyi Luh (Ukraine)

Hobi, M. L. et al. (2015): Gap pattern of the largest primeval beech forest of Europe revealed by remote sensing. Ecosphere Volume 6, Issue 5, Pages 1–15. – Uholka – Shyrokyi Luh (Ukraine)

Hytteborn, H., and Packham, J. R. (1985): Left to nature: forest structure and regeneration in Fiby urskog, central Sweden. Arbor. J. 9: 1–11.

Jaloviar, P. et al. (2017): Seven decades of change in a European old-growth forest following a stand-replacing wind disturbance: A long-term case study. Forest Ecology and Management Volume 399: 197–205. – Badín (Slovakia)

Janik, D. et al. (2013): Spatiotemporal differences in tree spatial patterns between alluvial hardwood and mountain fir–beech forests: do characteristic patterns exist? Journal of Vegetation Science Volume 24, Issue 6, pages 1141–1153. – Ranšpurk, Cahnov, Mionší, Salajka, Razula (Czechia)

Janík, D. et al. (2016): Tree spatial patterns of Fagus sylvatica expansion over 37 years. Forest Ecology and Management 375: 134–45. – Žofín (Czechia)

Jaworski, A. & Paluch. J. (2002): Factors Affecting the Basal Area Increment of the Primeval Forests in the Babia Góra National Park, Southern Poland. Forstw. Cbl. 121, 97–108.

Kenderes, K. et al. (2009): Natural Gap Dynamics in a Central European Mixed Beech-Spruce-Fir Old-Growth Forest. Ecoscience 16(1):39–47. – Žofín (Czechia)

Keren, S. et al. (2014): Comparative Structural Dynamics of the Janj Mixed Old-Growth Mountain Forest in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Are Conifers in a Long-Term Decline? Forests 5(6), 1243–1266.

Knapp, H. D. Schroeder, C. & Schwaderer, G. (2014): Report of the Excursion to Ancient Beech Forests in Albania and Macedonia. EuroNatur Spezial 01/2014.

Knorn, J. et al. (2012): Continued loss of temperate old-growth forests in the Romanian Carpathians despite an increasing protected area network. Environmental Conservation 40 (2): 182–193.

Král. K., McMahon, S. M., Janík, D., Adam, D & Vrška, T. (2014): Patch mosaic of developmental stages in central European natural forests along vegetation gradient. Forest Ecology and Management. 330: 17–28. – Cahnov, Ranspurk, Salajka, Zofin, Boubin (Czechia)

Král, K. et al. (2010): Local variability of stand structural features in beech dominated natural forests of Central Europe: Implications for sampling. Forest Ecology and Management 260/12: 2196–2203. – Žofín, Salajka, Zakova hora (Czechia)

Král, K. et al. (2014): Spatial variability of general stand characteristics in central European beech-dominated natural stands – Effects of scale. Forest Ecology and Management 328: 353–64. – Žofín, Salajka, Zakova hora (Czechia)

Kucbel, S., Saniga, M., Jaloviar, P. & Vencurik, J. (2012): Stand structure and temporal variability in old-growth beech-dominated forests of the northwestern Carpathians: A 40-years perspective. Forest Ecology and Management 264, 125–133. – Kyjov, Badín, Havešová, Stužica, Rožok, Rastún, Vtácnik (Slovakia)

Kucbel, S. et al. (2010): Canopy gaps in an old-growth fir–beech forest remnant of Western Carpathians. European Journal of Forest Research 129(3): 249–259. – Badín (Slovakia)

Kuijper, D. P. J. et al. (2010): Bottom-up versus top-down control of tree regeneration in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Ecology, 98, 888–899.

Kuuluvainen, T. (1994): Gap disturbance, ground microtopography, and the regeneration dynamics of boreal coniferous forests in Finland: a review. Annales Zoologici Fennici 31(1): 35–51.

Kuuluvainen, T., & Aakala, T. (2011): Natural forest dynamics in boreal Fennoscandia: A review and classification. Silva Fennica, 45, 823–841.

Leemans, R. (1991): Canopy gaps and establishment patterns of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in two old-growth coniferous forests in central Sweden. Vegetatio 93: 157–165. – Fiby, Granskär

Liu, Q. & Hytteborn, H. (1991): Gap structure and regeneration in a primeval Picea abies forest. J Veg Sci 2: 391–402. – Fiby (Sweden)

Mansourian, S., Rossi, M. & Vallauri, D. (2013): Ancient Forests in the Northern Mediterranean: Neglected High Conservation Value Areas. WWF.

Marinček, L. and Marinšek, A., 2004. Vegetation of the Pečka Virgin Forest Remnant. HACQUETIA 3(2): 5–27. – Slovenia

Maunaga Z. 2001. Management plan for forests with special purpose in the strict natural reservations “Janj” and “Lom”. Banja Luka: Bosnia and Herzegovina Forestry Project.

Merce, O., Turcu D., & Cantar I. (2012): The structure of a natural mixed beech – sessile oak forest in Runcu Grosi Natural Reserve. JOURNAL of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology 16(2), 131–138. – Romania

Mikac, S. et al. (2007): Regeneration in canopy gaps of the dinaric beech-fir virgin forests. Glasnik za Sumske Pokuse 42: 29–41. – Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia) and Čorkova Uvala (Croatia)

Miścicki, S. (2012): Structure and dynamics of temperate lowland natural forest in the Białowieża National Park, Poland. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research 85/4: 473–483.

Motta, R. et al. (2011): Toward a definition of the range of variability of central European mixed Fagus–Abies–Picea forests: the nearly steady-state forest of Lom (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 1871–1884.

Motta, R. et al. (2015): Structure, spatio-temporal dynamics and disturbance regime of the mixed beech–silver fir–Norway spruce old-growth forest of Biogradska Gora (Montenegro). Plant Biosystems Vol. 149, No. 6, 966–975.

Nagel, T. A. & Diaci, J. (2006): Intermediate wind disturbance in an old-growth beech-fir forest in southeastern Slovenia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(3): 629–638. – Pečka

Nagel, T. A., Levanic, T. & Diaci, J. (2007): A dendroecological reconstruction of disturbance in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest in Slovenia. Annals of Forest Science Volume 64, Issue 8, pp 891–897. – Pečka

Nagel, T. A. & Svoboda, M. (2008): Gap disturbance regime in an old-growth Fagus–Abies forest in the Dinaric Mountains, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Can. J. For. Res. 38: 2728–2737. – Perućica (Bosnia–Herzegovina)

Nagel, T. A., Svoboda, M. & Kobal, M. (2014): Disturbance, life history traits, and dynamics in an old-growth forest landscape of southeastern Europe. Ecological Applications 24(4), 2014, pp. 663–679. – Perućica (Bosnia–Herzegovina)

Nagel, T. A. et al. (2012): Old-growth forest reserves in Slovenia: the past, present, and future. Schweiz Z Forstwes 163/6: 240–246.

Nagel, T. A. et al. (2010): Gap regeneration and replacement patterns in an old-growth Fagus–Abies forest of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Plant Ecol 208:307–318. – Perućica (Bosnia–Herzegovina)

Novotny, V., Balenović, I., Vuletić, D., Tomislav Dubravac, T. and Dekanić, S., 2010. First results of monitoring of stand structure changes in unmanaged beech stands in NP Plitvice Lakes. SEEFOR, 1(2): 51–98. – Croatia

Old-growth forests: the unknown treasures of Bulgaria. 2013. WWF.

Ostojić, D., Jovanović, B. & Kisin B. (2008): Beech virgin reserves in Serbia. Proceedings of the III Con­gress of Ecologists of the Republic of Macedonia with International Participation, 06–09.10.2007, Struga.

Paluch, J. G. (2007): The spatial pattern of a natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)–silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) forest: A patch-mosaic perspective. Forest Ecology and Management 253: 161–170. – Łabowiec (Poland)

Paluch, J., Keren, S. & Govedar, Z. (2020): The Dinaric Mountains versus the Western Carpathians: Is structural heterogeneity similar in close‑to‑primeval Abies–Picea–Fagus forests? European Journal of Forest Research. – Perućica, Janj, Lom (Bosnia–Herzegovina), Baniska, Łabowiec, Żarnówka (Poland)

Paluch, J. et al. (2015): Spatial variability of close-to-primeval Fagus–Abies–Picea forests in the Western Carpathians (Central Europe): a step towards a generalised pattern. Eur J Forest Res (2015) 134:235–246. – Zarnowka, Baniska, Uzrodeł Solinki (Poland)

Panayotov, M. et al. (2011): Wind disturbances shape old Norway spruce-dominated forest in Bulgaria. Forest Ecology and Management, Volume 262, Issue 3, Pages 470–481. – Parangalitsa

Panayotov, M. et al. (2016): Climate extremes during high competition contribute to mortality in unmanaged self-thinning Norway spruce stands in Bulgaria. Forest Ecology and Management 369, 74–88. – Parangalitsa

Parviainen, J. (2005): Virgin and natural forests in the temperate zone of Europe. For. Snow Landsc. Res. 79, 1/2: 9–18.

Petritan, A. M. et al. (2016): Dendroecological reconstruction of disturbance history of an old‐growth mixed sessile oak–beech forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 28/1: 117–27. – Runcu Grosi (Romania)

Piovesan, G. et al. (2010): Structural patterns, growth processes, carbon stocks in an Italian network of old growth beech forests. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 65(5): 557–590.

Piovesan, G. et al. (2005): Structure, dynamics and dendroecology of an old-growth Fagus forest in the Apennines. Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 13–28. – Valle Cervara

Roženbergar, D. et al. (2007): Gap regeneration patterns in relationship to light heterogeneity in two old-growth beech– fir forest reserves in South East Europe. Forestry 80(4): 431–443. – Rajhenavski Rog (Slovenia) and Čorkova Uvala (Croatia)

Sabatini, F. M. (2018): Where are Europe’s last primary forests? Diversity and Distributions, May 2018.

Šamonil, P. et al. (2013): Individual-based approach to the detection of disturbance history through spatial scales in a natural beech-dominated forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 1167–1184. – Žofín (Czechia)

Saniga, M. et al. (2011): Cyclic changes in tree species composition of mixed-species forest in western Carpathians: Role of disturbance and tree regeneration. Pol. J. Ecol. 59/4, 699–708. – Hroncecký Grún (Slovakia)

Schütz, J.-P. & Saniga, M. (2011): Modelling the risks of natural stand closure release with ageing in pure beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) stands. Annals of Forest Science; 68(6). – Havešová, Kyjov, Rožok, Stužica, Oblik, Kosodrevina, Pol’ana, Babia Hora, Pilsko (Slovakia)

Šebková, B. et al. (2011): Spatial and volume patterns of an unmanaged submontane mixed forest in Central Europe: 160 years of spontaneous dynamics. Forest Ecology and Management 262(5): 873–885. – Boubin (Czechia)

Simon, A., Gratzer, G. & Sieghardt, M. (2011): The influence of windthrow microsites on tree regeneration and establishment in an old growth mountain forest. Forest Ecology and Management 262 1289–1297. – Rothwald (Austria)

Splechtna, B. E. & Gratzer, G. (2005): Natural disturbances in Central European forests: approaches and preliminary results from Rothwald, Austria. For Snow Landsc Res 79: 57–67.

Splechtna, B. E., Gratzer, G. & Black, B. A. (2005): Disturbance history of a European old-growth mixed-species forest—A spatial dendro-ecological analysis. Journal of Vegetation Science Volume 16, Issue 5, pages 511–522. – Rothwald (Austria)

Standovár, T. & Kenderes, K. (2003): A Review on Natural Stand Dynamics in Beechwoods of East Central Europe. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 1(1–2): 19–46.

Svoboda, M. et al. (2014): Landscape-level variability in historical disturbance in primary Picea abies mountain forests of the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Journal of Vegetation Science Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 386–401.

Szwagrzyk, J. & Gazda, A. (2007): Above-ground standing biomass and tree species diversity in natural stands of Central Europe. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 555–562.

Szwagrzyk, J. & Szewczyk, J. (2001): Tree Mortality and Effects of Release from Competition in an Old-Growth Fagus-Abies-Picea StandJournal of Vegetation Science Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 621–626. – Żarnówka (Poland)

Trotsiuk, V., Hobi, M. L. & Commarmot, B. (2012): Age structure and disturbance dynamics of the relic virgin beech forest Uholka (Ukrainian Carpathians). Forest Ecology and Management 265,181–190.

Turcu, T.: The “Izvoarele Nerei” Scientific Reserve – Short Presentation. Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) Bucharest. – Romania

Veen, P. et al. (2010): Virgin forests in Romania and Bulgaria: results of two national inventory projects and their implications for protection. Biodivers Conserv 19:1805–1819.

Visnjic, Ć. et al. (2009): Virgin Status Assessment of Plješevica Forest in Bosnia – Herzegovina. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj 37 (2): 22–27.

Vrška, T. et al. (2009): European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) rotation in the Carpathians—A developmental cycle or a linear trend induced by man? Forest Ecology and Management 258, 347–356. – Mionší, Salajka, Razula (Czechia), Badín, Dobroč, Stužica (Slovakia), Pop Ivan (Ukraine)

Westphal, C. et al. (2005): Is the reverse J-shaped diameter distribution universally applicable in European virgin beech forests? Forest Ecology and Management 223. – Slovakia, Ukraine, Slovenia, Serbia, Albania

Wissel, C. (1992): Modelling the mosaic cycle of a Middle European beech forest. Ecological Modelling Volume 63, Issues 1–4, 29–43. – Rothwald (Austria)